Peace in Colombia
In November 2016 a final peace deal was signed between the FARC and the Colombian Government. It was agreed that there would be a truth commission with victims at the centre of that process, a transitional justice system for all those who committed crimes in the context of the armed conflict, and that the FARC would lay down their arms and form a political party. In 2018 the implementation of the peace deal is ongoing.
Key elements of the Havana peace deal
End of Conflict:
- A bilateral and definitive ceasefire was called after the signing of the final agreement.
- FARC troops located themselves in 26 specially created zones across rural Colombia for their demobilisation and reintegration programs.
- FARC handed over 100% of their weapons to a UN Mission (completed June 2017).
- A tripartite monitoring body formed of the FARC, government and a UN Mission was created to oversee the ceasefire and the disarmament process.
- A special unit for tackling paramilitary groups has been created (in June 2017).
Victims and Justice:
- An independent truth commission will seek to provide answers to victims of the armed conflict.
- A special unit will be created to search for the tens of thousands of disappeared.
- An amnesty will be provided to guerrillas and state security personnel deemed to have committed crimes not in violation of international laws.
- Transitional justice courts will be set-up for all those who have committed crimes not appropriate for an amnesty.
- The transitional justice courts will apply reduced sentences of a maximum of eight years of restricted movement for the most serious crimes.
- Restorative justice will be the guiding principle of the sentences issued by the transitional justice courts.
- Access to the transitional justice system will only be granted if there is full participation in the truth giving process.
Political Reincorporation of the FARC:
- FARC created a legally recognised political party (created September 2017).
- Until 2026 FARCs new party will receive guaranteed state funding.
- FARC will be guaranteed five seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate for two electoral periods, 2018 and 2022.
- Creation of statute of guarantees for opposition political parties.
- Specialised protection program for the new political movement created by the FARC.
- Program to increase electoral participation in regions affected by the armed conflict.
- Creation of 16 congressional seats for two electoral periods for zones with historic state abandonment.
- 3 million hectares of land will be given to peasant farmers.
- Land titles covering 7 million hectares will be given to peasant farmers currently working land but without land titles.
- Environmental zones and areas of exclusively small-scale production will be created.
- Rural development programs will ensure investment with participation of local communities.
- Gradual replacement of illegal crops with participation of local community and alternative economic opportunities.
- Subsidies will be provided for one year to families engaging with the substitution program.
Implementation and Verification:
- An Implementation, Monitoring and Verification Commission with representation from the government, FARC, and each of the guarantor and accompanying countries will oversee the implementation.
- A second UN Mission was also created to monitor government and FARC compliance with the implementation process beyond the ceasefire and the FARCs laying down of weapons.
See here for the full Text of the Peace Agreement.