In November 2016 a final peace deal was signed between the FARC and the Colombian Government. It was agreed that there would be a truth commission with victims at the centre of that process, a transitional justice system for all those who committed crimes in the context of the armed conflict, and that the FARC would lay down their arms and form a political party. In 2018 the implementation of the peace deal is ongoing.
Key elements of the Havana peace deal
End of Conflict:
- A bilateral and definitive ceasefire was called after the signing of the final agreement.
- FARC troops located themselves in 26 specially created zones across rural Colombia for their demobilisation and reintegration programs.
- FARC handed over 100% of their weapons to a UN Mission (completed June 2017).
- A tripartite monitoring body formed of the FARC, government and a UN Mission was created to oversee the ceasefire and the disarmament process.
- A special unit for tackling paramilitary groups has been created (in June 2017).
Victims and Justice:
- An independent truth commission will seek to provide answers to victims of the armed conflict.
- A special unit will be created to search for the tens of thousands of disappeared.
- An amnesty will be provided to guerrillas and state security personnel deemed to have committed crimes not in violation of international laws.
- Transitional justice courts will be set-up for all those who have committed crimes not appropriate for an amnesty.
- The transitional justice courts will apply reduced sentences of a maximum of eight years of restricted movement for the most serious crimes.
- Restorative justice will be the guiding principle of the sentences issued by the transitional justice courts.
- Access to the transitional justice system will only be granted if there is full participation in the truth giving process.
Political Reincorporation of the FARC:
- FARC created a legally recognised political party (created September 2017).
- Until 2026 FARCs new party will receive guaranteed state funding.
- FARC will be guaranteed five seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate for two electoral periods, 2018 and 2022.
- Creation of statute of guarantees for opposition political parties.
- Specialised protection program for the new political movement created by the FARC.
- Program to increase electoral participation in regions affected by the armed conflict.
- Creation of 16 congressional seats for two electoral periods for zones with historic state abandonment.
- 3 million hectares of land will be given to peasant farmers.
- Land titles covering 7 million hectares will be given to peasant farmers currently working land but without land titles.
- Environmental zones and areas of exclusively small-scale production will be created.
- Rural development programs will ensure investment with participation of local communities.
- Gradual replacement of illegal crops with participation of local community and alternative economic opportunities.
- Subsidies will be provided for one year to families engaging with the substitution program.
Implementation and Verification:
- An Implementation, Monitoring and Verification Commission with representation from the government, FARC, and each of the guarantor and accompanying countries will oversee the implementation.
- A second UN Mission was also created to monitor government and FARC compliance with the implementation process beyond the ceasefire and the FARCs laying down of weapons.